亨利六世,乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信

作者:金沙澳门官网下载app

原标题:亨利六世:从9个月大的国王到兰开斯特王朝的终结者

原标题:双语||乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信(中英文)

原标题:战斗民族网友:如果清朝没有取代明朝,整个中国都会成为俄罗斯帝国的领地

图文摘自《空王冠》一书,版权归出版社所有

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明亡清兴,很多人都认为是个悲剧,是文明的大倒退。然而一位俄罗斯网友却给了不同的看法。在俄国最大的社交网站VKontakte中,一个匿名网友发了一个帖子。帖子的标题是,《如果满洲人没有征服中国,整个中国都将成为俄罗斯的领地》。

文丨﹝英﹞丹·琼斯(Dan Jones)

奉天承运,皇帝敕谕,英吉利国王知悉:

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译丨陆大鹏

咨尔国王,远在重洋,倾心向化,特遣使恭赍表章,航海来廷,叩祝万寿,并备进方物,用将忱悃(还带了不少礼物,忠心可嘉)。**朕披阅表文,词意肫恳,具见国王恭顺之诚,深为嘉许。所有赍到表贡之正副使臣,念其奉使远涉,推恩加礼。已令大臣带领瞻觐(让大臣带领他们瞻仰天朝文明,赐予筵宴,叠加赏赉,用示怀柔。其已回珠山之管船官役人等六百余名,虽未来京,朕亦优加赏赐,俾得普沾恩惠,一视同仁(已经回到宁波珠山的管船役使等600多人虽然没有来京,我也一视同仁给与优厚赏赐,让大家都沾沾光)。**

这名网友认为,相比于明朝,满洲人建立的清朝更加热衷于拓边,对于蒙古和满洲地区也更加在乎。自朱棣以后,明朝的北方边境已经开始龟缩到长城以南。明朝曾经在外东北地区建立过统治,设立了奴儿干都司。

在15世纪时,幼主在位并非闻所未闻之事,但他们会给国家带来许多棘手的问题。一个婴儿、幼童,甚或少年,完全能够当君主,但他没有实际的治国能力。

至尔国王表内恳请派一尔国之人住居天朝,照管尔国买卖一节,此则与天朝体制不合,断不可行。向来西洋各国有愿来天朝当差之人,原准其来京,但既来之后,即遵用天朝服色,安置堂内,永远不准复回本国,此系天朝定制,想尔国王亦所知悉。今尔国王欲求派一尔国之人居住京城,既不能若来京当差之西洋人,在京居住不归本国,又不可听其往来,常通信息,实为无益之事。且天朝所管地方至为广远,凡外藩使臣到京,驿馆供给,行止出入,俱有一定体制,从无听其自便之例。今尔国若留人在京,言语不通,服饰殊制,无地可以安置。若必似来京当差之西洋人,令其一律改易服饰,天朝亦不肯强人以所难。设天朝欲差人常驻尔国,亦岂尔国所能遵行(假设我天朝也派人常住你国,恐怕你国也不同意吧?)?况西洋诸国甚多,非止尔一国,若俱似尔国王恳请派人留京,岂能一一听许?是此事断难准行。岂能因尔国王一人之请,以至更张天朝百余年法度(不能因为国王你一人之请,将天朝一百多年的规矩给废了)。

然而在15世纪中期,明朝便出人意料地放弃了这块土地,将防线退到了今天的辽宁,整个东北都成了女真人的领地。为了制止麻烦的女真人的入侵,明朝甚至把这项工作交给了朝鲜人。

九个月大的亨利六世被无可争议地接受为合法君主。但在他成年之前,或者在表现出足够的理智、能够开始参政之前,需要有人代表他,为他的公共和私人生活做所有的决定。作为孩童,国王无法自己选择官员和仆人,也不能指挥战争或主持司法,也没有足够的能力对王位传承做出关键决定,但英格兰的安全依赖于这样的决定。然而在孩子长到十八岁成年之前,也不可能忽视上述所有问题。

若云尔国王为照料买卖起见,则尔国人在澳门贸易非止一日,原无不加以恩视(若派人来京是为了照顾买卖起见,那你国人在澳门贸易也不是一天两天了,天朝原本对商人就没有另眼相看)。即如从前博尔都噶尔亚、意达哩亚等国屡次遣使来朝,亦曾以照料贸易为请。天朝鉴其悃忱,优加体恤(像以前葡萄牙、意大利几国好几次派人来,也曾经以照顾贸易的名义请我关照。天朝看他们挺真诚的,也不容易,就多加体恤)。凡遇该国等贸易之事,无不照料周备。前次广东商人吴昭平有拖欠洋船价值银两者,俱饬令该管总督由官库内先行动支帑项代为清还,并将拖欠商人重治其罪。想此事尔国亦闻知矣,外国又何必派人留京,为此越例断不可行之请?况留人在京,距澳门贸易处所几及万里,伊亦何能照料耶(何况你们派人驻京,京城距澳门差不多一万里,他怎么能照顾到?)?**若云仰慕天朝,欲其观习教化,则天朝自有天朝礼法,与尔国各不相同。尔国所留之人即能习学,尔国自有风俗制度,亦断不能效法中国,即学会亦属无用**。

明朝时,俄罗斯正向东方进发,在叶儿马克等殖民者的带领,俄罗斯人穿越了整个西伯利亚,到达了远东,也就是外东北地区。当时是1643年,俄罗斯先后建立了雅茨库克、尼布楚和雅克萨城,开始确立沙皇对东北和蒙古的统治。

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天朝扶有四海,惟励精图治,办理政务,奇珍异宝,并不贵重(天朝管辖的地方那么大,我想的是如何励精图治,至于奇珍异宝啥的我并不看得很重)。尔国王此次赍进各物,念其诚心远献,特谕该管衙门收纳(你啊这次进贡了不少礼物,念你特别诚恳大老远献来了,我才特别下旨让有关部门收了)。**其实天朝德威远被,万国来王,种种贵重之物,梯航毕集,无所下有,尔之正使等所亲见(其实天朝德泽四方,威加海内,万国来朝,通过水旱两路给我进贡,咱啥贵重玩意儿都不缺,这些你的使者都是亲眼见过的)。然从不贵奇巧,并无更需尔国制办物件。是尔国王所请派人留京一事,于天朝体制既属不合,而于尔国亦殊觉无益。特此详晰开示,遣令该使等安程回国(我把话都挑明了,现令让你国使者马上安排回国行程)**尔国王惟当善体朕意,益励款诚,永矢恭顺,以保义尔有邦,共享太平之福(国王你应该很好地领会我的意思,对天朝要更加诚心归附,发誓永远对天朝恭顺,天朝的恩泽就能施予你们国家,共建和谐社会)。除正副使臣以下各官及通事兵役人等正贯加赏各物件另单赏给外,兹因尔国使臣归国,特颁敕谕,并赐赍尔国王文绮珍物,具如常仪,加赐彩缎罗绮,文玩器具诸珍(除了正副使臣以下一干人等都按等级赏给各种物件,因为你国使者马上就要回国,我又特别下令,除了按常规赏给你的好玩意儿以外,加赐你绫罗绸缎、文玩器具等好玩意儿若干),另有清单。王其祗受,悉朕眷怀(皇恩浩荡,那都是我对你们的关怀)

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亨利六世

特此敕谕。**——**《清实录》

如果不出意外,俄罗斯将占领长城以北所有地区,因为俄国人对付游牧民族最有一套,只需要利用堡垒、火枪和哥萨克,就能轻易征服一个游牧民族。即使是建立于辽东的满洲帝国,也不是俄罗斯人对手。

他的父亲亨利五世至少是部分地预见到了这些问题。他于1422年8月临终之际将亲信召唤到病榻前,指示他们在他死后如何照料他的儿子和王国。他的遗嘱附录规定,年幼的亨利六世的人身由其叔祖父埃克塞特公爵托马斯·博福特埃克塞特公爵托马斯·博福特(1377~1427)为冈特的约翰与凯瑟琳·斯温福德的第三子。冈特的约翰的合法儿子是亨利四世(也就是亨利六世的祖父),所以亨利四世是托马斯·博福特的异母兄长。负责。埃克塞特公爵将全面负责照料幼主,并挑选仆人。

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在1653年,俄罗斯在外东北曾与清军交战,结果只用800人就击败了20000满洲骑兵。相信在不久的将来,还未完全统一中国的清朝,将被俄罗斯所征服。

奉命辅佐埃克塞特公爵的是两个对亨利五世忠心耿耿的亲信:沃尔特·亨格福德爵士(一个长期为王室内廷效力的管家)和菲茨休男爵亨利(一位备受信赖的宫廷总管)。这两人轮流侍奉在御前。(后来接替他们职责的,是另外两名对前一位国王忠心耿耿的军人:蒂普托夫特男爵约翰和路易斯·德·罗伯斯阿特。)

Qianlong’s Letter to George III, 1793

然而随着,满清帝国在中国全面确立统治,俄罗斯在东北亚的扩张就开始力不从心。原来,满清帝国获得了中国人的资源,可以有效与在远东的俄罗斯人对抗。当时,俄罗斯人毕竟太少,受到本土的支援不够,根本耗不过有全体中国人支持的满清军队。

但在养育婴儿方面,最适合的当然是孩子的母亲。凯瑟琳·德·瓦卢瓦(她自己才刚刚脱离童年)在儿子的早期生活和成长中也发挥了同样重要的作用。

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You, O King, live beyond the confines of many seas. Nevertheless, impelled by your humble desire to partake of the benefits of our civilisation, you have dispatched a mission respectfully bearing your memorial. Your Envoy has crossed the seas and paid his respects at my Court on the anniversary of my birthday. To show your devotion, you have also sent offerings of your country's produce.

比如在雅克萨之战中,清朝竟然在莽荒寒冷的当地投入2万人,而雅克萨的守军只有800人。所以俄罗斯永远失去了征服中国的机会。

凯瑟琳·德·瓦卢瓦

I have perused your memorial: the earnest terms in which it is couched reveal a respectful humility on your part, which is highly praiseworthy. In consideration of the fact that your Ambassador and his deputy have come a long way with your memorial and tribute, I have shown them high favour and have allowed them to be introduced into my presence. To manifest my indulgence, I have entertained them at a banquet and made them numerous gifts. I have also caused presents to be forwarded to the Naval Commander and six hundred of his officers and men, although they did not come to Peking, so that they too may share in my all-­embracing kindness.

这个很懂中国历史的俄罗斯网友总结,若清朝不取代明朝,而只是留在东北,那肯定会被俄罗斯所征服,而不擅长拓边的明朝肯定不会有任何阻拦。到时候长城以北的所有领地,都将为俄罗斯所有。

凯瑟琳的内廷在体制上与儿子的内廷分开,但实际上二者有不少重叠。王太后内廷的经费对她儿子的内廷提供补充,凯瑟琳在选择仆人方面也有影响力。在亨利六世还是个婴儿的时候,主要是女人侍奉他。他有一个保姆主管,叫琼·艾斯特利;一个日班保姆,叫玛蒂尔达·斯布罗克;一个室内女仆,叫阿格尼丝·杰克曼;一个洗衣妇,叫玛格丽特·布拉泽曼。我们对这些女人知之甚少,但凯瑟琳肯定对选择这些人员有决定权,因为她们和婴儿待在一起的时间比她的要长。

As to your entreaty to send one of your nationals to be accredited to my Celestial Court and to be in control of your country's trade with China, this request is contrary to all usage of my dynasty and cannot possibly be entertained. It is true that Europeans, in the service of the dynasty, have been permitted to live at Peking, but they are compelled to adopt Chinese dress, they are strictly confined to their own precincts and are never permitted to return home. You are presumably familiar with our dynastic regulations. Your proposed Envoy to my Court could not be placed in a position similar to that of European officials in Peking who are forbidden to leave China, nor could he, on the other hand, be allowed liberty of movement and the privilege of corresponding with his own country; so that you would gain nothing by his residence in our midst.

只要妥当经营,整合满洲和蒙古军队,到时候入关征服中国的或许将是俄罗斯人。明朝连野蛮的满洲人都打不过,更何况拥有先进装备,战斗力更强大的俄罗斯人?

亨利六世两岁时,凯瑟琳曾经的仆人爱丽丝·布蒂耶女爵士被任命为王室女教师,御前会议正式授权她在亨利六世违反纪律时教训他,而且不必害怕报复。即便国王渐渐长大,他身边的男性越来越多,凯瑟琳的影响力依然很显著。1428年,沃里克伯爵理查·比彻姆开始负责亨利六世的教育,奉命给他培养出具有骑士风度的君主品质。但亨利六世的忏悔神父乔治·阿瑟顿,以及他的内廷首席骑士沃尔特·比彻姆爵士,都是王太后身边的老人。

Moreover, our Celestial dynasty possesses vast territories, and tribute missions from the dependencies are provided for by the Department for Tributary States, which ministers to their wants and exercises strict control over their movements. It would be quite impossible to leave them to their own devices. Supposing that your Envoy should come to our Court, his language and national dress differ from that of our people, and there would be no place in which to bestow him. It may be suggested that he might imitate the Europeans permanently resident in Peking and adopt the dress and customs of China, but, it has never been our dynasty's wish to force people to do things unseemly and inconvenient. Besides, supposing I sent an Ambassador to reside in your country, how could you possibly make for him the requisite arrangements? Europe consists of many other nations besides your own: if each and all demanded to be represented at our Court, how could we possibly consent? The thing is utterly impracticable. How can our dynasty alter its whole procedure and system of etiquette, established for more than a century, in order to meet your individual views? If it be said that your object is to exercise control over your country's trade, your nationals have had full liberty to trade at Canton for many a year, and have received the greatest consideration at our hands. Missions have been sent by Portugal and Italy, preferring similar requests. The Throne appreciated their sincerity and loaded them with favours, besides authorising measures to facilitate their trade with China. You are no doubt aware that, when my Canton merchant, Wu Chao-ping, who was in debt to foreign ships. I made the Viceroy advance the monies due, out of the provincial treasury, and ordered him to punish the culprit severely. Why then should foreign nations advance this utterly unreasonable request to be represented at my Court? Peking is nearly two thousand miles from Canton, and at such a distance what possible control could any British representative exercise?

帖子最后总结:“非常遗憾,更执着于东北蒙古领土的满清取代了明朝,否则俄国历代沙皇”黄色俄罗斯“的梦想必将实现。

年轻的王太后在英格兰和威尔士拥有广袤的土地和丰厚的财产,包括威尔士的庞大城堡弗林特、里兹兰和博马里斯,约克郡巍峨雄伟的要塞纳尔斯伯勒,在南方还有赫特福德城堡、利兹城堡,以及肯特郡的普莱西和瓦灵福德,后者是一座历史悠久的王室城堡,专门为供她使用和占有而做了大规模翻修和装潢。她在自己最喜欢的几座府邸之间巡回,但大部分时间和儿子一起待在泰晤士河谷的几座美丽王宫中,尤其是温莎、威斯敏斯特和埃尔特姆。

If you assert that your reverence for Our Celestial dynasty fills you with a desire to acquire our civilisation, our ceremonies and code of laws differ so completely from your own that, even if your Envoy were able to acquire the rudiments of our civilisation, you could not possibly transplant our manners and customs to your alien soil. Therefore, however adept the Envoy might become, nothing would be gained thereby.

笔者认为,这名俄罗斯网友的说法未必没有道理。从宣德年间起,明朝就将领土退回长城内。如果明朝不占领满蒙,这些地区肯定会被俄罗斯人占领,到时候如果与俄罗斯人以长城为界,后果不堪设想。返回搜狐,查看更多

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Swaying the wide world, I have but one aim in view, namely, to maintain a perfect governance and to fulfil the duties of the State: strange and costly objects do not interest me. If I have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by you, O King, are to be accepted, this was solely in consideration for the spirit which prompted you to dispatch them from afar. Our dynasty's majestic virtue has penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country's manufactures. This then is my answer to your request to appoint a representative at my Court, a request contrary to our dynastic usage, which would only result in inconvenience to yourself. I have expounded my wishes in detail and have commanded your tribute Envoys to leave in peace on their homeward journey. It behoves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to display even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so that, by perpetual submission to our Throne, you may secure peace and prosperity for your country hereafter. Besides making gifts (of which I enclose an inventory) to each member of your Mission, I confer upon you, O King, valuable presents in excess of the number usually bestowed on such occasions, including silks and curios-a list of which is likewise enclosed. Do you reverently receive them and take note of my tender goodwill towards you! A special mandate.

责任编辑:

埃尔特姆宫,图片来源于网络

You, O King, from afar have yearned after the blessings of our civilisation, and in your eagerness to come into touch with our converting influence have sent an Embassy across the sea bearing a memorial. I have already taken note of your respectful spirit of submission, have treated your mission with extreme favour and loaded it with gifts, besides issuing a mandate to you, O King, and honouring you with the bestowal of valuable presents. Thus has my indulgence been manifested.

埃尔特姆位于肯特郡,在一个多世纪里是深受喜爱的王室居所,在这里我们能瞥见幼年国王的早期生活。埃尔特姆宫宽敞、壮丽、奢华而舒适,因此受到凯瑟琳王太后的喜爱,而那些引人入胜的角落也适合蹒跚学步的儿童探索。埃尔特姆周围是好几英亩的园林,还有精心设计的花园,里面种着葡萄藤。优雅的拱形石桥横跨于宫殿的护城河之上,延伸向许多附属建筑。

Yesterday your Ambassador petitioned my Ministers to memorialise me regarding your trade with China, but his proposal is not consistent with our dynastic usage and cannot be entertained. Hitherto, all European nations, including your own country's barbarian merchants, have carried on their trade with our Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years, although our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce. But as the tea, silk and porcelain which the Celestial Empire produces, are absolute necessities to European nations and to yourselves, we have permitted, as a signal mark of favour, that foreign hongs [merchant firms] should be established at Canton, so that your wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our beneficence. But your Ambassador has now put forward new requests which completely fail to recognise the Throne's principle to "treat strangers from afar with indulgence," and to exercise a pacifying control over barbarian tribes, the world over. Moreover, our dynasty, swaying the myriad races of the globe, extends the same benevolence towards all. Your England is not the only nation trading at Canton. If other nations, following your bad example, wrongfully importune my ear with further impossible requests, how will it be possible for me to treat them with easy indulgence? Nevertheless, I do not forget the lonely remoteness of your island, cut off from the world by intervening wastes of sea, nor do I overlook your excusable ignorance of the usages of our Celestial Empire. I have consequently commanded my Ministers to enlighten your Ambassador on the subject, and have ordered the departure of the mission. But I have doubts that, after your Envoy's return he may fail to acquaint you with my view in detail or that he may be lacking in lucidity, so that I shall now proceed . . . to issue my mandate on each question separately. In this way you will, I trust, comprehend my meaning....

小国王可能会遇见在厨房与食品储藏室工作的厨师。清晨,面包房里会传出令人舒爽的香气,还有香料储藏室里飘出的更具有异国风情的味道。埃尔特姆宫于1305年成为王室财产,自14世纪50年代以来经历了三次大规模扩建。在亨利六世在位的早年岁月,王室在埃尔特姆投入更多资金,以确保它能提供养育幼主所需的所有清洁而现代化的设施。整洁优美、配备石制烟囱的木制套房由回廊与一座壮美的私人礼拜堂连接起来。晚上凯瑟琳可以在大厅和一个特制的舞厅招待客人。

(3) Your request for a small island near Chusan, where your merchants may reside and goods be warehoused, arises from your desire to develop trade. As there are neither foreign hongs nor interpreters in or near Chusan, where none of your ships have ever called, such an island would be utterly useless for your purposes. Every inch of the territory of our Empire is marked on the map and the strictest vigilance is exercised over it all: even tiny islets and far­lying sand­banks are clearly defined as part of the provinces to which they belong. Consider, moreover, that England is not the only barbarian land which wishes to establish . . . trade with our Empire: supposing that other nations were all to imitate your evil example and beseech me to present them each and all with a site for trading purposes, how could I possibly comply? This also is a flagrant infringement of the usage of my Empire and cannot possibly be entertained.

而国王的内廷人员都待在他的套房,其核心是国王的私人房间,那里有两座壁炉供暖,彩色玻璃窗提供光照,窗上画着鸟儿和怪物,以及亨利六世的祖父亨利四世的个人徽记。王室徽章和王冠图案环绕着亨利四世的箴言:soueignexvous de moy(铭记我)。

(4) The next request, for a small site in the vicinity of Canton city, where your barbarian merchants may lodge or, alternatively, that there be no longer any restrictions over their movements at Aomen, has arisen from the following causes. Hitherto, the barbarian merchants of Europe have had a definite locality assigned to them at Aomen for residence and trade, and have been forbidden to encroach an inch beyond the limits assigned to that locality.... If these restrictions were withdrawn, friction would inevitably occur between the Chinese and your barbarian subjects, and the results would militate against the benevolent regard that I feel towards you. From every point of view, therefore, it is best that the regulations now in force should continue unchanged....

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(7) Regarding your nation's worship of the Lord of Heaven, it is the same religion as that of other European nations. Ever since the beginning of history, sage Emperors and wise rulers have bestowed on China a moral system and inculcated a code, which from time immemorial has been religiously observed by the myriads of my subjects. There has been no hankering after heterodox doctrines. Even the European (missionary) officials in my capital are forbidden to hold intercourse with Chinese subjects; they are restricted within the limits of their appointed residences, and may not go about propagating their religion. The distinction between Chinese and barbarian is most strict, and your Ambassador's request that barbarians shall be given full liberty to disseminate their religion is utterly unreasonable.

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